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Vitamin D, as well as calcium, is essential to preventing osteoporosis and may reduce other health risks such as diabetes and immune system disorders. While exposure to sunlight provides vitamin D, northerners are at risk of seasonal vitamin D deficiency because winter sunlight in northern latitudes does not contain enough ultraviolet B for vitamin D production. Milk fortified with vitamin D3 contains 100 IUs per 250 ml glass. Foods such as margarine, eggs, chicken livers, salmon, sardines, herring, mackerel, swordfish and fish oils (halibut and cod liver oils) all contain small amounts. Supplementation is necessary to obtain adequate levels as dietary intake has minimal impact. Most multivitamins provide 400 IUs of vitamin D3. Some calcium supplements also contain vitamin D3.