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I. The Role of Hormones There are three major hormones involved in the normal menstrual cycle: estrogen, progesterone and testosterone. Each of these hormones has a unique role and they are discussed in detail below: • Estrogen Estrogen is produced by the ovarian follicle. It is responsible for the development and maintenance of the female reproductive organs. It also aids in the development of female secondary sexual characteristics. In the monthly menstrual cycle of a woman, estrogen plays an important role. Just after the last menstrual period, estrogen secretion increases and makes the endometrium thick and more vascular than normal. This is important in preparing the uterus for possible pregnancy, and if there is no pregnancy it is important in